Common Components of an Arm Chair Frame and Structure Springs Yardage Chart Measuring and Cutting Fabric Common Fitting Cuts
Padding Upholstery Books Common Chair Measurements Upholstery Tools Back Designs


There are three main types of springs used in upholstered furniture. We will concentrate on two. The third is called marshall springs and are found as units in beds and cushions. Most springs are made from tempered steel and coated with a substance to help prevent corrosion.

Coil Springs
Coil springs are more common in older furniture. They are used today in higher end furniture. They range in height from 4 (11 gauge) to 14 (8 gauge) inches. The heavier gauge springs - 9-11 - are used in seats. Each size can be obtained in 3 different grades of firmness - hard, medium and soft. The height of the spring is dependent on the style of the seat.

Coil springs are usually attached to webbing using a clinch it tool or button twine. When the springs have been properly spaced and attached they must be tied. It is important to tie the springs in a way that they can act as a unit when complete. Jute twine is the most popular choice for securing the springs. There are two common ties that are used to fasten the springs to the frame and to each other.

The Clove Hitch knot used to secure springs to each other

Two way tie used to attach to the frame

Most arm chair seats are well served when a 4 way tie system is used. This is when the springs are tied front to back, side to side and then cross corner. There are a total of 8 knots on each spring.

Four Way Spring Tying Pattern

Sinuous Springs
Sinuous springs, also known as zig zag springs, are found in most modern furniture. They are available in gauges from 8 - 13. They come on a continuos roll and are cut to specific lengths. 7-8 gauge is used for seats and 10-12 gauge is used for backs.